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Islamic languages

Welcome - Merhaba - أهلا وسهلا - Hoşgeldiniz - خوش آمدید ! This guide focuses on useful sources for the study of the Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Urdu Languages taught at the McGill Institute of Islamic Studies.


Aryanpour is an English to Persian dictionary helpful to translate texts and documents from one language to the other.

Dehkhoda (لغت نامه دهخدا) is accessible through Parsiwiki Project (پارسی ویکی) which is an online platform that developed and made accessible the dictionary of Dehkhoda. This dictionary is known to be the largest comprehensive Persian dictionary and was compiled by Ali Akbar Dehkhoda. It was first published in 1940 and later grew to 16 volumes. Each entry in this dictionary consists of a description, mode of usage, phonetics, examples and passages from Persian literature containing that entry. Moreover this dictionary includes words of other languages (Turkish, Mongolian, Hindi, Arabic, French, English, German, Russian etc.,) that are commonly used in Persian language.

Francis Joseph Steingass’ Persian Dictionary Online is an app aiming to provide a more efficient search algorithm than the one offered by Digital South Asia Library (DSAL) at the University of Chicago.

Sulayman Hayyim’ Persian Dictionary Online is designed to give the English meanings of over 50,000 words, terms, idioms, and proverbs in the Persian language, as well as the transliteration of the words in English characters.

Vajehyab is an online comprehensive Persian language lexicon that searches over 20 different Persian languages dictionaries and recently added Arabic and English dictionaries. Vajehyab conducts searches in various dictionaries therefore the results can exceed definitions to include modes of usage, dictation, English and Arabic equivalents, and, if available, alternate meanings from different dialects of Iran.

Digital collections

Ganjoor is an online open access collection of Persian literature. This collection provides access to a diverse and extensive collection of the literary works of Persian poets. Ganjoor is the result of a collective effort whose purpose is to gather thousands of treasures from classical and modern Persian literature and to provide free access to this valuable collection.

Persian Online Grammar and Resources is a pedagogical reference grammar indexed alphabetically. Grammar points are explained in English and supported by examples in English and Persian.


Dāʼirat al-maʻārif-i buzurg-i Islāmī  is compiled and published by the center for the Great Islamic Encyclopedia, it covers a wide range of Islamic topics and issues and aims to meet the scientific needs of Muslim communities. This encyclopedia is known to specifically  reflect the culture of Islamic world and thus covers a variety of subjects, such as: Quranic Studies, Doctrines, Theology (Kalam), Jurisprudence, Principles of Jurisprudence (fiqh), Hadith, Elements, Islamic figures, Ethics, Religions, Heresiography, Logic, Philosophy, Mysticism, Literature, art, anthropology, architecture and Islamic monuments, history, geography, mathematics, astronomy and medicine.

Index Islamicus is an international classified bibliography of publications in European languages on Islam and the Muslim World.

Encyclopaedia Iranica is a comprehensive research tool focusing on the study of the Iranian civilization in the Middle East, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.

NoorLib contains over 8000 titles of books on various aspects of Islamic subjects., such as the Qur’anic sciences and exegesis, hadith sciences, Du`as and ziyarats, Nahj al-Balaghah, theology and philosophy, geography, history and conduct, Islamic jurisprudence, usoul (legal theory), Islamic ethics and mysticism, literature, logic, and Islamic denominations and sects. This library is designed to provide scientific resources and tools for researchers and scholars. Different indexes and subject guides facilitate the search for resources, and books are full-text searchable.

NoorMags’s website provides access to specialized magazines on Islamic sciences and humanities tailored to meet the scientific needs of scholars and researchers. Various search features enable users to search for topics by Article titles, journal titles or the author names. Additionally journals are classified based on their academic ranking as well searchable by subject in the alphabetical order.

Rijal Database is a database on influential figures in the Middle East and particularly in Iran. It includes a wide range of important people from different fields of politics, economics, the arts, writers, poets and athletics. This Database gathers biographical and professional information on these figures from different sources, including firsthand information gleaned from personal interviews. The Rijal database introduces people from particular eras in each country, for example from the period of the 1920’s revolution in Iraq, or the time of the Qajar dynasty in Iran.


Abrahams, S. Modern Persian: A Course-Book. New York, NY: Routledge Curzon, 2005. Print.

Baizoyev, Azim, and John Hayward. Beginner’s Guide to Tajiki. New York, NY: Routledge Curzon, 2004. Print.

Boyle, John Andrew. Grammar of Modern Persian. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz, 1966. Print.

Brookshaw, Parviz and Pouneh Shabani Jadidi. The Routledge Intermediate Persian Course. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012. Print.

Dabir-Moqaddam, Mohammad. Compound Verbs in Persian. Studies in the Linguistic Sciences; 27, no. 2 (Fall 1997): 25–59.

Dehghani, Yavar . Farsi (Persian). Footscray (Victoria), Australia: Lonely Planet, 2008. Print.

Elwell-Sutton, L.P. Elementary Persian Grammar. London, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1963. Print.

Hafezian, Mohsen. Persian Verbs: Morphology and Conjugations. Montreal, Canada: Multissage, 2009. Print.

Khojayori, Nasrullah, and Mikael Thompson. Tajiki Reference Grammar for Beginners. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2009. Print.

Lambton, Ann K.S. Persian Grammar. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1984. Print.

Lazard, Gilbert. A Grammar of Contemporary Persian. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1992. Print.

Mace, John. Persian Grammar for Reference and Revision. New York, Routledge Curzon, 2003. Print.

Mahootian, Shahrzad and Lewis Gebhardt. Persian. London: Routledge, 1997. Print.

Perry, John R. Form and Meaning in Persian Vocabulary: The Arabic Feminine Ending . Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 1991. Print.

Perry, John R.  A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar. Leiden, The Netherlands: E.J. Brill, 2005. Print.

Rafiee, Abdi. Colloquial Persian: The Complete Course for Beginners. New York, NY: Routledge, 2001. Print.

Sedighi, Anousha. Persian In Use. An elementary textbook of language and culture. Leiden University Press, 2015. Print.

Sedighi, Anousha, & Shabani-Jadidi, Pouneh (Eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Persian linguistics (Oxford handbooks online). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Electronic resource.

Shabani-Jadidi, Pouneh and Dominic Parviz Brookshaw. The Routledge introductory Persian course : Farsi shirin ast. New York, NY: Routledge, 2020. Print.

Shabani-JadidiPouneh and Dominic Parviz BrookshawThe Routledge introductory Persian course : Farsi shirin ast book two. New York, NY: Routledge, 2012. Electronic resource.

Shabani JadidiPounehThe Routledge advanced Persian course : Farsi shirin ast book threeNew York, NY: Routledge, 2020. Electronic resource.

Shabani-Jadidi, Pouneh. What the Persian Media Says. New York, NY: Routledge, 2015. Electronic resource.

Shabani Jadidi, Pouneh. Processing compound verbs in Persian: a psycholinguistic approach to complex predicates. Leiden University Press, 2016. Electronic resource.

Sprachman, Paul. Language and Culture in Persian. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2002. Print.

Stilo, Donald, Kamran Talattof, and Jerome Clinton. Modern Persian: Spoken and Written. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005. Print.

Thackston, Wheeler M. An Introduction to Persian. Bethesda, MD: Ibex Publishers, 1993. Print.

Windfuhr, Gernot L.  Persian Grammar: History and State of Its Study. The Hague: Mouton, 1979. Print.

Windfuhr, Gernot L. "Persian". In Comrie, Bernard, The World's Major Languages. London : Routledge, 2009. 445-458.

Yousef, Saeed, and Hayedeh Torabi. Basic Persian: A Grammar and Workbook. New York, NY: Routledge, 2013. Print.

Yousef, Saeed, and Hayedeh Torabi. Intermediate Persian: A Grammar and Workbook. New York, NY: Routledge, 2014. Print.


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