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American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA 7th Edition citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.
APA: Getting started
To learn the basics of
APA style, visit:
APA Formatting and Style Guide (Excelsior College)
APA Style (tips, FAQ, etc)
To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).
Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315)
(Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24)
(Smith et al., 1997, p. 151)
(Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005)
(“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)
Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1)
(Morales, 2007, ¶2)
To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.
Ex: (Marketline, 2007b, p. 14)
(Marketline, 2007a, p. 5)
|Placement||Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.|
|Title||Type the word References at the top of the page and centered.|
Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)
To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.
|Spacing||Double-space all entries|
|Indentation||The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented|
Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from http://products.kantarmediana.com/security/default.aspx
Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual report. https://www.microsoft.com/investor/reports/ar06/staticversion/index.html
Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report. https://www.sedar.com/
Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Mergent Online. https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page. DOI or permanent URL.
Note: Recent changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article.
Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.
Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news2/background/seniors/
Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2
See also: Web sites
Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada. https://www.bloomberg.com/
Park, K., Philip, S., Davies, W., Man, Y., & Amin, H. (2020, April 20). The virus clips AirAsia’s wings. Bloomberg Businessweek, 16–17.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Publisher.
Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. SAGE Publications.
Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance. https://www.oreilly.com/
Brunico Communications. (n.d.). Bell Media. CARDOnline. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://www.cardonline.ca/
Standard & Poor’s. (2020). Restaurant Brands International [Company profile]. Capital IQ. https://www.standardandpoors.com/
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Case study ID number. Publisher.
Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. Ivey Publishing.
CB Insights. (n.d.). OLIO [Company profile]. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from https://www.cbinsights.com/
Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set]. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=462&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&SearchText=Montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1&type=0
Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS. http://datacentre.chass.utoronto.ca/
U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties]. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://cbb.census.gov/sbe/#
Thomson Reuters. (2019). Equity risk premium: Brazil, China, India, Russia 2018-2019 [Data set]. Eikon. https://www.refinitiv.com/en/products/eikon-trading-software
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2018). China [Country analysis]. https://www.eiu.com
Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers. eMarketer. https://www.emarketer.com/
Risk Management Association. (2019, November 11). Financial ratio benchmarks 2019-2020 for NAICS 11110: Soybean farming. https://www.rmahq.org/ProductDetail.aspx?productid=684685779
Reuters. (n.d.). Canadian Tire Corp. Ltd. https://global.factiva.com
Identify primary contributors at the beginning of the citation, such as producer, director, writer, followed by their role in parentheses. After the title, indicate the format of the film in square brackets, such as [DVD], or [Motion Picture] for films in the cinema.
Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in italics: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [DVD]. Studio or distributor.
Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [DVD]. United States: Alliance Films.
Last name, First and middle initials, & Last names and initials of other primary contributors, if any. (Function). (Year, Month and Day, if available). Title italicized [Television Broadcast]. Television Network.
Aspell, P. (Executive producer). (1995, March 15). Nova [Television Broadcast]. WGBH
Author or Publisher (Role/Contribution). (Date). Title of the video: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [Video file]. URL
Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [Video file]. https://www.criterionondemand.com/
As the creators of digital videos are often known by pseudonymous screen names that are more well-known than the author’s true name, this information is included after the author's name. If the author’s real name isn’t known, use just the screen name as shown in the example below.
Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. URL
[mtl food snob]. (2019, April 24). Where to eat in Montreal (BEST PIZZA in town) [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7Mn1HglHOA
Industry Canada. (n.d.). Report for: NAICS 33411 - Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/pp-pp.nsf/eng/home
Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld. https://www.ibisworld.com/
To cite a slide from a class lecture, you can use the following format:
Smith, A. (2015, September 8). Week 1: Personality styles in the workplace [PowerPoint slides]. https://mycourses2.mcgill.ca/d2l/loginh/
Then in your in-text citations would look like:
Smith (2015, September 8, slide 3)
You can site notes that you take in class as personal communications.
Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style such as the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information on legal citation styles, please visit the Citation Styles page maintained by the Nahum Gelber Law Library.
Marketline. (2007, March). Global energy: Industry profile. https://www.marketline.com
Global energy consumption, 2016. (2020). In R. S. Lazich & V. L. Burton, III (Eds.), Market Share Reporter (30th ed.). Gale.
Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors. https://www.mergentarchives.com/
Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php
Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. https://reports.mintel.com/display/986928/#
Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport. https://go.euromonitor.com/passport.html
SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US. http://app.simplyanalytics.com
SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. http://app.simplyanalytics.com
Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista. https://www.statista.com/
Zekauskas, J. (2020, March 10). Albemarle Corporation: J.P. Morgan conference takeaways [Analyst report]. Thomson ONE. https://www.refinitiv.com/en
Vividata. (2019, Fall). Candy/snacks - chewing gum - prsnlly chewed past 6 mths [Base: Age 14+] [Data set]. https://vividata.ca
Eurostat. (2020). Area under organic farming [Data set]. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/sdg_02_40
International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org
Organizational culture. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture
World Health Organization. (2020, June 2). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report - 134. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200602-covid-19-sitrep-134.pdf?sfvrsn=cc95e5d5_2
Standard & Poor’s. (n.d.). Compustat daily updates - fundamentals annual [Microsoft Corporation: Income statement items - January 2015 to January 2020] [Data set]. Capital IQ. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://wrds-www.wharton.upenn.edu/
The Center for Research in Security Prices. (n.d.). CRSP daily stock [Tesla Motors stock prices from 2007 to 2020] [Data set]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://wrds-www.wharton.upenn.edu/