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Citation guides

Management & business sources citation style guide

American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA 7th Edition citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.

Citing sources in the text of your assignment

APA: Getting started

To learn the basics of
APA style, visit:

APA Formatting and Style Guide (Excelsior College)

APA Style (tips, FAQ, etc)

APA Publication Manual

With page numbers (print or online)

To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).

Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315)
(Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24)
(Smith et al., 1997, p. 151)
(Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005)
(Ipsos-Reid, 2001)
(“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)

Without page numbers

Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.

Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1)
(Morales, 2007, ¶2)

Two or more works, same author, same year

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.

Ex: (MarketLine, 2007b, p. 14)
(MarketLine, 2007a, p. 5)


Citing sources in your reference list

How to format your reference list


Placement Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.
Title Type the word References at the top of the page and centered.

Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.

MarketLine. (2007a, February). Gaz Métropolitain [Company profile]. 

MarketLine. (2007b, March). Global energy [Industry profile]. 

Spacing Double-space all entries
Indentation The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented




Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from 

Annual reports/company filings

From a company website

Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual report


Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report.

From Mergent Online

Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Mergent Online. 


Online Article with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page. DOI or permanent URL.

Online Article without DOI

warning icon Note: Recent changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article.

Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.

Online Magazine/Newspaper

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? CBC News.

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, with DOI

Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2

See also: Web sites


Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada.

Bloomberg Businessweek

Park, K., Philip, S., Davies, W., Man, Y., & Amin, H. (2020, April 20). The virus clips AirAsia’s wings. Bloomberg Businessweek, 16–17. 


Print Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Publisher.

Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. SAGE Publications.


Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance.

Canadian Advertising Rates and Data (CARD)

Brunico Communications. (n.d.). Bell Media. CARDOnline. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from 

Capital IQ

Standard & Poor’s. (2020). Restaurant Brands International [Company profile]. Capital IQ.

Case Studies

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Case study ID number. Publisher.

Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. Ivey Publishing.

CB Insights

CB Insights. (n.d.). OLIO [Company profile]. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from

Census Data

Canada - Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set]. 

Canada - CHASS Census Analyzer

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS. 

United States - Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties].  U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from

Eikon (Thomson Reuters)

Thomson Reuters. (2019). Equity risk premium: Brazil, China, India, Russia 2018-2019 [Data set]. Eikon.


Economist Intelligence Unit. (2018). China [Country analysis].


Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers.

eStatement Studies

Risk Management Association. (2019, November 11). Financial ratio benchmarks 2019-2020 for NAICS 11110: Soybean farming. 


See: Articles

Reuters. (n.d.). Canadian Tire Corp. Ltd.

Film, TV and Streaming Media 


Motion Picture (DVD, etc.)

Identify primary contributors at the beginning of the citation, such as producer, director, writer, followed by their role in parentheses. After the title, indicate the format of the film in square brackets, such as [DVD], or [Motion Picture] for films in  the cinema. 

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in italics: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [DVD]. Studio or distributor.

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [DVD]. United States: Alliance Films.


Last name, First and middle initials, & Last names and initials of other primary contributors, if any. (Function). (Year, Month and Day, if available). Title italicized [Television Broadcast]. Television Network.

Aspell, P. (Executive producer). (1995, March 15). Nova [Television Broadcast]. WGBH

Streaming video (Netflix, Hulu, library resources like Kanaopy, etc.)

Author or Publisher (Role/Contribution). (Date). Title of the video: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [Video file]. URL

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [Video file].


YouTube Video or Video Blog Entry

As the creators of digital videos are often known by pseudonymous screen names that are more well-known than the author’s true name, this information is included after the author's name. If the author’s real name isn’t known, use just the screen name as shown in the example below.

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. URL

[mtl food snob]. (2019, April 24). Where to eat in Montreal (BEST PIZZA in town) [Video file].

Financial Performance Data (Industry Canada) 

Industry Canada. (n.d.). Report for: NAICS 33411 - Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing.


Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report].

Lecture presentations and notes

Presentation slides

To cite a slide from a class lecture, you can use the following format:

Smith, A. (2015, September 8). Week 1: Personality styles in the workplace [PowerPoint slides].

Then in your in-text citations would look like:

Smith (2015, September 8, slide 3)

Class notes

You can site notes that you take in class as personal communications.

Legal Materials

Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style such as the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information on legal citation styles, please visit the Citation Styles page maintained by the Nahum Gelber Law Library.


MarketLine. (2007). Global energy [Industry profile]. 

Market Share Reporter

Global energy consumption, 2016. (2020). In R. S. Lazich & V. L. Burton, III (Eds.), Market Share Reporter (30th ed.). Gale.

Mergent Archives

Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 


Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. 


Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport. 



SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US. 


SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. 


Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista. 

Thomson ONE

Zekauskas, J. (2020, March 10). Albemarle Corporation: J.P. Morgan conference takeaways [Analyst report]. Thomson ONE.


Vividata. (2019, Fall). Candy/snacks - chewing gum - prsnlly chewed past 6 mths [Base: Age 14+] [Data set]. 

Web sites


Eurostat. (2020). Area under organic farming [Data set].

International Monetary Fund

International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. 


Organizational culture. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from

World Health Organization

World Health Organization. (2020, June 2). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report - 134. 


Wharton Data Research Services (WRDS)

Standard & Poor’s. (n.d.). Compustat daily updates - fundamentals annual [Microsoft Corporation: Income statement items - January 2015 to January 2020] [Data set]. Capital IQ. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from 

The Center for Research in Security Prices. (n.d.). CRSP daily stock [Tesla Motors stock prices from 2007 to 2020] [Data set]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from

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