Skip to main content

Citation guides

OFF-CAMPUS ACCESS

Further to Quebec government and university directives, McGill campuses will be closed as of March. As a result, all library branches will be closed until further notice. Library staff will continue to provide virtual reference during service hours. Amanda and Dawn will also be available via email and virtual consultation. 

Contact

Chat with us in Teams!

Click to Chat with Chad in Microsoft TeamsVirtual Business Librarians Research Room
Chat with Amanda


Email Us!

*Please select either one librarian to email or message both Dawn and Amanda together in order to ensure the best possible response to your query.


dawn.mckinnon@mcgill.ca
amanda.wheatley@mcgill.ca

Instagram & Snapchat - Buslibmcgill

     Snapchat code for buslibmcgill

*We will answer research questions on social media


 

Management & business sources citation style guide

American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA 7th Edition citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.


Citing sources in the text of your assignment

APA: Getting started

To learn the basics of
APA style, visit:

APA Formatting and Style Guide (Excelsior College)

APA Style (tips, FAQ, etc)

APA Publication Manual

With page numbers (print or online)

To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).

Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315)
(Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24)
(Smith et al., 1997, p. 151)
(Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005)
(Ipsos-Reid, 2001)
(“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)

Without page numbers

Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.

Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1)
(Morales, 2007, ¶2)

Two or more works, same author, same year

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.

Ex: (Marketline, 2007b, p. 14)
(Marketline, 2007a, p. 5)

 

Citing sources in your reference list

How to format your reference list

 

Placement Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.
Title Type the word References at the top of the page and centered.
Order

Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.

Marketline. (2007a, February). Gaz Métropolitain: Company profile. https://www.marketline.com 

Marketline. (2007b, March). Global energy: Industry profile. https://www.marketline.com 

Spacing Double-space all entries
Indentation The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented

 

 


Ad$pender

Kantar Media. (n.d.). Internet display: Peloton exercise equipment/Peloton Tread: treadmill [Peloton digital advertising spend for April 2020] [Data set]. Ad$pender Online. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from http://products.kantarmediana.com/security/default.aspx 

Annual reports/company filings

From a company website

Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual reporthttps://www.microsoft.com/investor/reports/ar06/staticversion/index.html

From SEDAR/EDGAR

Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report. https://www.sedar.com/

From Mergent Online

Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Mergent Online. https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php 


Articles

Online Article with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page. DOI or permanent URL.

Online Article without DOI

warning icon Note: Recent changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article.

Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.

Online Magazine/Newspaper

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news2/background/seniors/

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, with DOI

Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2

See also: Web sites


Bloomberg

Bloomberg. (2019). Company analysis for Bank of Canada. https://www.bloomberg.com/

Bloomberg Businessweek

Park, K., Philip, S., Davies, W., Man, Y., & Amin, H. (2020, April 20). The virus clips AirAsia’s wings. Bloomberg Businessweek, 16–17. 


Books

Print Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Publisher.

Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. SAGE Publications.

eBook

Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance. https://www.oreilly.com/

Canadian Advertising Rates and Data (CARD)

Brunico Communications. (n.d.). Bell Media. CARDOnline. Retrieved June 15, 2020, from https://www.cardonline.ca/ 


Capital IQ

Standard & Poor’s. (2020). Restaurant Brands International [Company profile]. Capital IQ. https://www.standardandpoors.com/


Case Studies

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Case study ID number. Publisher.

Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. Ivey Publishing.


CB Insights

CB Insights. (n.d.). OLIO [Company profile]. Retrieved June 10, 2020, from https://www.cbinsights.com/


Census Data

Canada - Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada. (2017). Census profile, 2016 Census: Montréal (Census metropolitan area), Quebec and Quebec (Province) (Table 98-316-X2016001) [Data set]. https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CMACA&Code1=462&Geo2=PR&Code2=24&SearchText=Montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1&type=0 

Canada - CHASS Census Analyzer

Statistics Canada. (n.d.). Income - total sex: Total - income statistics in 2015 for the population aged 15 years and over in private households [Data set]. CHASS. http://datacentre.chass.utoronto.ca/ 

United States - Census Bureau

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). Census business builder: Small business edition - 3.0.1 [Map showing restaurants in the Dane County, WI area and surrounding counties].  U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://cbb.census.gov/sbe/#


Eikon (Thomson Reuters)

Thomson Reuters. (2019). Equity risk premium: Brazil, China, India, Russia 2018-2019 [Data set]. Eikon. https://www.refinitiv.com/en/products/eikon-trading-software


EIU

Economist Intelligence Unit. (2018). China [Country analysis]. https://www.eiu.com

eMarketer

Briggs, P., Dolliver, M., Kim, A., Koch, L., & Wurmser, Y. (2020, February). Canada digital habits by generation: Identifying key distinctions across age groups, from teens to baby boomers. eMarketer. https://www.emarketer.com/


eStatement Studies

Risk Management Association. (2019, November 11). Financial ratio benchmarks 2019-2020 for NAICS 11110: Soybean farming. https://www.rmahq.org/ProductDetail.aspx?productid=684685779 


Factiva

See: Articles

Reuters. (n.d.). Canadian Tire Corp. Ltd. https://global.factiva.com


Film, TV and Streaming Media 

 

Motion Picture (DVD, etc.)

Identify primary contributors at the beginning of the citation, such as producer, director, writer, followed by their role in parentheses. After the title, indicate the format of the film in square brackets, such as [DVD], or [Motion Picture] for films in  the cinema. 

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in italics: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [DVD]. Studio or distributor.

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [DVD]. United States: Alliance Films.

Television

Last name, First and middle initials, & Last names and initials of other primary contributors, if any. (Function). (Year, Month and Day, if available). Title italicized [Television Broadcast]. Television Network.

Aspell, P. (Executive producer). (1995, March 15). Nova [Television Broadcast]. WGBH

Streaming video (Netflix, Hulu, library resources like Kanaopy, etc.)

Author or Publisher (Role/Contribution). (Date). Title of the video: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [Video file]. URL

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [Video file]. https://www.criterionondemand.com/

 

YouTube Video or Video Blog Entry

As the creators of digital videos are often known by pseudonymous screen names that are more well-known than the author’s true name, this information is included after the author's name. If the author’s real name isn’t known, use just the screen name as shown in the example below.

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. URL

[mtl food snob]. (2019, April 24). Where to eat in Montreal (BEST PIZZA in town) [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7Mn1HglHOA


Financial Performance Data (Industry Canada) 

Industry Canada. (n.d.). Report for: NAICS 33411 - Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/pp-pp.nsf/eng/home


IBISWorld

Diment, D. (2019, December). Corporate wellness services (OD4621) [U.S. specialized industry report] . IBISWorld. https://www.ibisworld.com/

Lecture presentations and notes

Presentation slides

To cite a slide from a class lecture, you can use the following format:

Smith, A. (2015, September 8). Week 1: Personality styles in the workplace [PowerPoint slides]. https://mycourses2.mcgill.ca/d2l/loginh/

Then in your in-text citations would look like:

Smith (2015, September 8, slide 3)

Class notes

You can site notes that you take in class as personal communications.


Legal Materials

Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style such as the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information on legal citation styles, please visit the Citation Styles page maintained by the Nahum Gelber Law Library.


Marketline

Marketline. (2007, March). Global energy: Industry profile. https://www.marketline.com 

Market Share Reporter

Global energy consumption, 2016. (2020). In R. S. Lazich & V. L. Burton, III (Eds.), Market Share Reporter (30th ed.). Gale.

Mergent Archives

Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors. https://www.mergentarchives.com/

Mergent Online

Mergent. (n.d.). Hain Celestial Group [Company profile]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://www.mergentonline.com/login.php 

Mintel

Failla, J. (2020, April). Quick service restaurants - US. Mintel. https://reports.mintel.com/display/986928/# 


Passport

Homma, A. (2020, February 24). Apparel and footwear in the US [Country report]. Passport.  https://go.euromonitor.com/passport.html 

SimplyAnalytics

Map

SimplyAnalytics. (2019). [Map of Minneapolis, MN metro with family income $200,000 and over]. Census US. http://app.simplyanalytics.com 

Data​

SimplyAnalytics. (2019.) [% food - Snack/dessert ice cream & sherbet - Brand Haagen-Daaz, entire US] [Data set]. SimmonsLocal US. http://app.simplyanalytics.com 


Statista

Daniel Research Group. (2019, September). Unit shipments of mobile personal computers (PCs) and laptops in the United States, from 2013 to 2023 (in millions) [Chart]. Statista.  https://www.statista.com/ 

Thomson ONE

Zekauskas, J. (2020, March 10). Albemarle Corporation: J.P. Morgan conference takeaways [Analyst report]. Thomson ONE. https://www.refinitiv.com/en


Vividata

Vividata. (2019, Fall). Candy/snacks - chewing gum - prsnlly chewed past 6 mths [Base: Age 14+] [Data set]. https://vividata.ca 


Web sites

Eurostat

Eurostat. (2020). Area under organic farming [Data set]. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/sdg_02_40

International Monetary Fund

International Financial Statistics. (2020). Government finance: Japan 2013-2020 [Data set]. International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org 

Wikipedia

Organizational culture. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture

World Health Organization

World Health Organization. (2020, June 2). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Situation report - 134. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200602-covid-19-sitrep-134.pdf?sfvrsn=cc95e5d5_2 

 


Wharton Data Research Services (WRDS)

Standard & Poor’s. (n.d.). Compustat daily updates - fundamentals annual [Microsoft Corporation: Income statement items - January 2015 to January 2020] [Data set]. Capital IQ. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://wrds-www.wharton.upenn.edu/ 

The Center for Research in Security Prices. (n.d.). CRSP daily stock [Tesla Motors stock prices from 2007 to 2020] [Data set]. Retrieved June 3, 2020, from https://wrds-www.wharton.upenn.edu/

McGill LibraryQuestions? Ask us!
Privacy notice