Concept mapping is a technique for articulating, organizing, and communicating knowledge.
There are a lot of different techniques out there - the Periodic Table of Visualization Methods is a great place to explore - so, what makes concept mapping unique?
It is a lot like brainstorming and mind mapping, since it helps to get information out of our heads and challenges us to articulate the essential concepts or ideas. However, unlike brainstorming and mind mapping, concept mapping asks us to define how these essential components relate to each other. It results in maps that are structured and complex, but also more informative.
Concept mapping has a strong theoretical background. Joseph Novak and his research team at Cornell developed the tool in the 1970s (The Origin and Development of Concept Maps). Their work focused on human learning and knowledge creation, with the idea that the single most important factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows. When you create a concept map, you demonstrate your understanding of an area. As you build on what you already know, your map grows and you can visualize the learning process.
Maps consist of concepts, that describe events or objects, and their relationships.
Concept maps are hierarchical: Concepts are mapped hierarchically, from general to specific, or in a logical order.
Concepts are connected: All concepts are linked together with words or phrases that define the relationships. Concepts and linking words form propositions, or statements, so that maps can be read at any point.
The concepts in the above examples are: 'hazards', 'rocks', 'winds'. The linking word in both cases is 'include'.
There are different things to look for in a concept map, including the number and quality of concepts, connections, levels, and cross links (links between different areas of a map). Maps may be referred to as isolated, departmental, or integrated (Hung & Lin, 2015):
Concept maps in the classroom
Concept mapping is used to promote meaningful learning, enable feedback and assessment, and provide students with additional reference materials (Daley & Torre, 2010):
Concept maps were designed to demonstrate learning, but today they are used for a wide variety of applications, such as:
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Berglund A. What's in a Word? Concept mapping: A graphical tool to reinforce learning of epidemiological concepts. (2015). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 69: 1232-1236. doi:10.1136/jech-2014-205068
Bilton N., Rae J., Logan P., & Maynard G. (2017). Concept mapping in health sciences education: Conceptualizing and testing a novel technique for the assessment of learning in anatomy. MedEdPublish, 6(3): 17. doi:10.15694/mep.2017.000131
Colosimo, A. L., & Fitzgibbons, M. (2012). Teaching, designing, and organizing: Concept mapping for librarians. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 7(1). doi:10.21083/partnership.v7i1.1800
Daley, B. J. & Torre, D. M. (2010), Concept maps in medical education: an analytical literature review. Medical Education, 44: 440–448. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2010.03628.x
Morfidi, E., Mikropoulos, A. & Rogdaki, A. (2017). Using concept mapping to improve poor readers’ understanding of expository text. Education and Information Technologies. doi:10.1007/s10639-017-9600-7
Novak, J. D., & Cañas, A. J. (2008). The theory underlying concept maps and how to construct and use them. Technical Report IHMC CmapTools 2006-01 Rev 2008-01
Novak, J. D., & Gowin, D. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p.36 @McGillLib