Skip to Main Content

Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and other Knowledge Syntheses

Knowledge synthesis process

This guide covers the steps in the process of a knowledge synthesis.

1. Question: Formulate a clear, answerable question

2. Protocol: Write and register a protocol that outlines the steps you will take in the review

3. Search: Conduct a systematic, reproducible search to find articles relevant to your question

4. Screening: Look at each article to see if it matches your inclusion and exclusion criteria

5. Appraisal: Assess the quality of the studies included in your review

6. Synthesis: Summarize the knowledge you have found

7. Writing: Write your methods and results for publication

Contact us


Due to a large influx of requests, there may be an extended wait time for librarian support on knowledge syntheses.


Find a librarian in your subject area to help you with your knowledge synthesis project.


Or contact the librarians at the
Schulich Library of Physical Sciences, Life Sciences, and Engineering

Need help? Ask us!

Online training resources

Online training resources

McGill LibraryQuestions? Ask us!
Privacy notice