American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.
APA: Getting started
To learn the basics of
APA style, visit:
APA Formatting and Style Guide (Purdue University)
APA Style Essentials (Vanguard University)
APA Style (tips, FAQ, etc)
To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).
Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315) (Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24) (Smith et al., 1997, p. 151) (Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005) (Ipsos-Reid, 2001) (“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)
Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.
Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1) (Morales, 2007, ¶2)
To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.
Ex: (Marketline, 2007b, p. 14) (Marketline, 2007a, p. 5)
|Placement||Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.|
|Title||Type the word References at the top of the page and centered.|
Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)
To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.
|Spacing||Double-space all entries|
|Indentation||The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented|
Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual report. Retrieved from https://www.microsoft.com/investor/reports/ar06/staticversion/index.html
Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report. Retrieved from SEDAR.
Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page.
Note: Recent changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article.
Halachmi, A. (2005). Governance and risk management: Challenges and public productivity. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 18(4), 300-317.
Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.
Griffiths , R. & Lyle, G. (2005, December 22). Why young people don't vote. National Post, p. A.24.
Chase, K. (2007, March 26). Confessions of a PVR user. Marketing Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.marketingmag.ca/media/confessions-of-a-pvr-user-19379
Aschkenase, S. & Hedge L. (2010). What healthy companies can learn from distressed companies. Ivey Business Journal, 74(2). Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/
Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news2/background/seniors/
Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2
See also: Web sites
Bloomberg L.P. (2006). Stock price graph for Bombardier 10/1/06 to 12/1/06.from Bloomberg database.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Location: Publisher.
Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
McCraw, T.K. (Ed.). (1988). The essential Alfred Chandler: Essays toward a historical theory of big business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance. Retrieved from NetLibrary database.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. start page of chapter – end page of chapter). Location: Publisher.
Stoleson, M. (2006). The World Bank: Buy, sell, or hold? In N. Birdsall (Ed.). Rescuing the World Bank (pp. 195 – 201). Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Harvard or Ivey case study ID number. Location: Publisher.
Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. London, Canada: Ivey Publishing.
LexisNexis. (2007) Centerpoint Data, LLC. Retrieved from Corporate Affiliations database.
Datastream International. Constituents of the S&P 500. Retrieved from Datastream database.
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2006, March). Country commerce: Kenya. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.
eMarketer. (2006, April 18). Worldwide e-book revenues, 2004 & 2005 (millions and % increase versus prior year). Retrieved from eMarketer database.
Verna, P. (2007, April). Video game advertising: Getting to the next level. Retrieved from eMarketer database.
Reuters. (2007). Google Inc company snapshot. Retrieved from Factiva database.
Reuters Investor. (2007). Daily prices comparison chart for Google and NASDAQ 1/17/07 to 4/17/07. Retrieved from Factiva database.
Identify primary contributors at the beginning of the citation, such as producer, director, writer, followed by their role in parentheses. After the title, indicate the format of the film in square brackets, such as [DVD], or [Motion Picture] for films in the cinema. Include the country of origin (not the city).
Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in italics: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [DVD]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.
Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [DVD]. United States: Alliance Films.
Last name, First and middle initials, & Last names and initials of other primary contributors, if any. (Function). (Year, Month and Day, if available). Title italicized [Television Broadcast]. Place of Recording: Television Network.
Aspell, P. (Executive producer). (1995, March 15). Nova [Television Broadcast]. Boston, MA: WGBH
Author or Publisher (Role/Contribution). (Date). Title of the video: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [Video file]. Retrieved from Name database
Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [Video file]. Retrieved from Criterion-on-Demand
As the creators of digital videos are often known by pseudonymous screen names that are more well-known than the author’s true name, this information is included after the author's name. If the author’s real name isn’t known, use just the screen name as shown in the example below.
Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
[mtl food snob]. (2019, April 24). Where to eat in Montreal (BEST PIZZA in town) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e7Mn1HglHOA
Industry Canada. (n.d.). Report for: NAICS 33411 - Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing. Retrieved from https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/pp-pp.nsf/eng/home
Colbert, C. (2007, March 15). LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA. Retrieved from Hoover’s Company Records database.
Alvarez, A. (2015, October). Gas stations in Canada. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.
To cite a slide from a class lecture, you can use the following format:
Smith, A. (2015, September 8). Week 1: Personality styles in the workplace [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from MyCourses.
Smith, A. (2015, September 15). Week 2: Teams and personalities [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from MyCourses.
Then in your in-text citations would look like:
Smith (2015, September 8, slide 3)
Smith (2015, September 15, slide 6)
You can site notes that you take in class as personal communications.
For more information on citing lecture presentations and notes, see:
Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style such as the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information on legal citation styles, please visit the Citation Styles page maintained by the Nahum Gelber Law Library.
Marketline. (2007, March). Global energy: Industry profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.
Largest DVD markets worldwide, 2004. (2006). In R. S. Lazich (Ed.), Market Share Reporter 2007 (Vol. 2, p. 784). Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale.
Largest high-speed ISPs in Canada. (2003). Market Share Reporter (13th ed.). Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.
Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors. Retrieved from Mergent Archives database.
Mergent. (2006). Amazon.com Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.
Euromonitor. (2007, February 26). Cat food – Canada. Retrieved from Passport GMID.
To cite a map:
SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 22, 2019, from SimplyAnalytics database.
To cite data:
SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.
For more information, visit the SimplyAnalytics citation FAQ.
Statista. (2015). Shipments of smart watches worldwide from 2013 to 2015 (in millions). Retrieved from Statista database.
Statistics Canada. (2011). Legal Marital Status (6), Common-law Status (3), Age Groups (17) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions and Dissemination Areas, 2011 Census, Catalogue no. 98-312-XCB2011039, [Table]. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/rt-td/index-eng.cfm#tab5
Statistics Canada. (2011). Table 282-0010 Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S) and sex, [Table]. Retrieved from CANSIM database: http://www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a05?lang=eng&id=2820010&pattern=2820010...
Always remember to include either the table number or the catalogue number where applicable (as demonstrated above). Also, always note the how the information was displayed in square brackets (e.g. [Table], [Graph]).
If the information you’re citing from the Statistics Canada website does not have a catalogue number of table number, follow the examples above omitting that information.
Vividata. (2017). Candy/snacks - chewing gum - prsnlly chewed past 6 mths. Retrieved from https://vividata.ca
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication or n.d. if not dated). Title of document.
Canadian Wind Energy Association. (n.d.). Wind facts. Retrieved from http://canwea.ca/wind-facts/
Ipsos-Reid. (2001, November). National camping study. Retrieved from https://www.camping.org/study/index.php
Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/seniors/
McGill University. (2006, August 22). Administrative microcomputer policies and guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.mcgill.ca/adminhandbook/
Organizational culture. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture