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Citation guides

Management & business sources citation style guide

American Psychological Association (APA) citation style is widely used in management and the social sciences. This guide gives APA citation style examples for selected management research sources at McGill, with a focus on online resources.

Citing sources in the text of your assignment

APA: Getting started

To learn the basics of
APA style, visit:

APA Formatting and Style Guide (Purdue University)


APA Style Essentials (Vanguard University)

APA Style (tips, FAQ, etc)

APA Publication Manual

With page numbers (print or online)

To cite a source in the text of your report, indicate the last name of the author/s, or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, and then the page, chapter, figure or table numbers (if applicable).

Ex: (Halachmi, 2005, p. 315) (Griffiths & Lyle, 2005, p. A.24) (Smith et al., 1997, p. 151) (Savard, 2001; Daniel, 2005) (Ipsos-Reid, 2001) (“Largest DVD Markets,” 2006)

Without page numbers

Indicate the last name of the author/s or if there is no author the first few words of the document title (in quotation marks), then the year of publication, then cite the nearest heading and the number of the paragraphs following, preceded by the paragraph symbol or the abbreviation para.

Ex: (Euromonitor, 2007, Prospects section, para. 1) (Morales, 2007, ¶2)

Two or more works, same author, same year

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year assign letter suffixes to the publication year, both in text and in the corresponding reference list entries.

Ex: (Marketline, 2007b, p. 14) (Marketline, 2007a, p. 5)


Citing sources in your reference list

How to format your reference list


Placement Start the reference list on a new page, after the body of the assignment.
Title Type the word References at the top of the page and centered.

Order entries by last name of author or, if no author, first word of title (excluding A, An, The, etc.)

To differentiate between two or more works by the same author in the same year, assign letter suffixes to the publication year.

Marketline. (2007a, February). Gaz Métropolitain: Company profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Marketline. (2007b, March). Global energy: Industry profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Spacing Double-space all entries
Indentation The first line of each entry should be left aligned, subsequent lines are indented



Annual reports/company filings

From a company website

Microsoft Corp. (2006). Annual report. Retrieved from


Canadian Tire Corporation Ltd. (2007, January 19). Form 51-102F3 – Material change report. Retrieved from SEDAR.

From Mergent Online

Weyerhaeuser Co., Ltd. (2004, December 26). Annual report. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.


Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), start page - end page.

Database restricted to McGill users, e.g. ABI/Inform (ProQuest), Business Source Premier (EBSCO), Factiva, etc.

warning icon Note: Recent changes to the APA style guide mean that you are no longer required to state which database an article was retrieved from (unless it would be difficult to locate the item otherwise). Cite as if it were a regular print journal article.

Halachmi, A. (2005). Governance and risk management: Challenges and public productivity. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 18(4), 300-317.

Chou, Y., Lee, C., & Chung, J. (2004). Understanding m-commerce payment systems through the analytic hierarchy process. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1423-1430.

Griffiths , R. & Lyle, G. (2005, December 22). Why young people don't vote. National Post, p. A.24.

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, without DOI

Chase, K. (2007, March 26). Confessions of a PVR user. Marketing Magazine. Retrieved from

Aschkenase, S. & Hedge L. (2010). What healthy companies can learn from distressed companies. Ivey Business Journal, 74(2). Retrieved from

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from

Online magazine/journal/newspaper, with DOI

Leeflang, S.P.H. &Wittnik, D.R. (2000). Building models for marketing decisions: Past, present and future. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 17(2-3), 105-126. doi: 10.1016/S0167-8116(00)00008-2

See also: Web sites


Bloomberg L.P. (2006). Stock price graph for Bombardier 10/1/06 to 12/1/06.from Bloomberg database.


Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (Xth ed.). Location: Publisher.

Kelloway, E.K., Barling, J., & Hurrell, J.J. Jr. (2006). Handbook of workplace violence. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

McCraw, T.K. (Ed.). (1988). The essential Alfred Chandler: Essays toward a historical theory of big business. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.


Fitz-enz, J. (2000). The ROI of human capital: Measuring the economic value of employee performance. Retrieved from NetLibrary database.

Book chapter

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. start page of chapter – end page of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Stoleson, M. (2006). The World Bank: Buy, sell, or hold? In N. Birdsall (Ed.). Rescuing the World Bank (pp. 195 – 201). Washington, D.C.: Center for Global Development.

Case Studies

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of case study. Harvard or Ivey case study ID number. Location: Publisher.

Erskine, J.A., & LeBoldus, M. (2003). Bombardier Aerospace. Ivey ID: 9B03C016. London, Canada: Ivey Publishing.

Corporate Affiliations

LexisNexis. (2007) Centerpoint Data, LLC. Retrieved from Corporate Affiliations database.


Datastream International. Constituents of the S&P 500. Retrieved from Datastream database.


Economist Intelligence Unit. (2006, March). Country commerce: Kenya. Retrieved from Economist Intelligence Unit database.


eMarketer. (2006, April 18). Worldwide e-book revenues, 2004 & 2005 (millions and % increase versus prior year). Retrieved from eMarketer database.

Verna, P. (2007, April). Video game advertising: Getting to the next level. Retrieved from eMarketer database.


See: Articles

Reuters. (2007). Google Inc company snapshot. Retrieved from Factiva database.

Reuters Investor. (2007). Daily prices comparison chart for Google and NASDAQ 1/17/07 to 4/17/07. Retrieved from Factiva database.

Film, TV and Streaming Media 


Motion Picture (DVD, etc.)

Identify primary contributors at the beginning of the citation, such as producer, director, writer, followed by their role in parentheses. After the title, indicate the format of the film in square brackets, such as [DVD], or [Motion Picture] for films in  the cinema. Include the country of origin (not the city).

Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture in italics: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [DVD]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [DVD]. United States: Alliance Films.


Last name, First and middle initials, & Last names and initials of other primary contributors, if any. (Function). (Year, Month and Day, if available). Title italicized [Television Broadcast]. Place of Recording: Television Network.

Aspell, P. (Executive producer). (1995, March 15). Nova [Television Broadcast]. Boston, MA: WGBH

Streaming video (Netflix, Hulu, library resources like Kanaopy, etc.)

Author or Publisher (Role/Contribution). (Date). Title of the video: Capitalize only the first word in the subtitle [Video file]. Retrieved from Name database

Ross, G. (Director). (2012). The hunger games [Video file]. Retrieved from Criterion-on-Demand


YouTube Video or Video Blog Entry

As the creators of digital videos are often known by pseudonymous screen names that are more well-known than the author’s true name, this information is included after the author's name. If the author’s real name isn’t known, use just the screen name as shown in the example below.

Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from

[mtl food snob]. (2019, April 24). Where to eat in Montreal (BEST PIZZA in town) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Financial Performance Data (Industry Canada) 

Industry Canada. (n.d.). Report for: NAICS 33411 - Computer and peripheral equipment manufacturing. Retrieved from

Hoover's Company Records

Colbert, C. (2007, March 15). LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA. Retrieved from Hoover’s Company Records database.


Alvarez, A. (2015, October). Gas stations in Canada. Retrieved from IBISWorld database.

Lecture presentations and notes

Presentation slides

To cite a slide from a class lecture, you can use the following format:

Smith, A. (2015, September 8). Week 1: Personality styles in the workplace [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from MyCourses.
Smith, A. (2015, September 15). Week 2: Teams and personalities [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from MyCourses.

Then in your in-text citations would look like:

Smith (2015, September 8, slide 3)
Smith (2015, September 15, slide 6)

Class notes

You can site notes that you take in class as personal communications.


For more information on citing lecture presentations and notes, see:

Legal Materials

Legal materials can be formatted using the APA style; however, it is recommended that legal materials such as case law, regulations, policies, etc. are cited using a legal citation style such as the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Canadian) or The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (US). For more information on legal citation styles, please visit the Citation Styles page maintained by the Nahum Gelber Law Library.


Marketline. (2007, March). Global energy: Industry profile. Retrieved from Marketline database.

Market Share Reporter

Print format

Largest DVD markets worldwide, 2004. (2006). In R. S. Lazich (Ed.), Market Share Reporter 2007 (Vol. 2, p. 784). Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale.

Electronic format

Largest high-speed ISPs in Canada. (2003). Market Share Reporter (13th ed.). Retrieved from Lexis-Nexis database.

Mergent Archives

Mergent. (2006, June). The North America retailing sectors. Retrieved from Mergent Archives database.

Mergent Online

Mergent. (2006). Inc. Retrieved from Mergent Online database.

Passport GMID

Euromonitor. (2007, February 26). Cat food – Canada. Retrieved from Passport GMID.



To cite a map: 

SimplyAnalytics (2017). Map with 2016 Consumer Expenditure Data. Retrieved February 22, 2019, from SimplyAnalytics database.

To cite data: 

SimplyAnalytics (2017). EASI/MRI Consumer Expenditure Data 2016. Retrieved February 17th, 2017, from SimplyAnalytics database.

For more information, visit the SimplyAnalytics citation FAQ


Statista. (2015). Shipments of smart watches worldwide from 2013 to 2015 (in millions). Retrieved from Statista database.

Statistics Canada

An example of census data

Statistics Canada. (2011). Legal Marital Status (6), Common-law Status (3), Age Groups (17) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions, Census Subdivisions and Dissemination Areas, 2011 Census, Catalogue no. 98-312-XCB2011039, [Table]. Retrieved from

An example of data from CANSIM

Statistics Canada. (2011). Table 282-0010 Labour force survey estimates (LFS), by National Occupational Classification for Statistics (NOC-S) and sex, [Table]. Retrieved from CANSIM database:

Always remember to include either the table number or the catalogue number where applicable (as demonstrated above). Also, always note the how the information was displayed in square brackets (e.g. [Table], [Graph]).

If the information you’re citing from the Statistics Canada website does not have a catalogue number of table number, follow the examples above omitting that information.


Vividata. (2017). Candy/snacks - chewing gum - prsnlly chewed past 6 mths. Retrieved from

Web sites

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication or n.d. if not dated). Title of document.

Canadian Wind Energy Association. (n.d.). Wind facts. Retrieved from

Ipsos-Reid. (2001, November). National camping study. Retrieved from

Morales, S. (2007, February 28). A greying population: What does it mean for Canada? Retrieved from

McGill University. (2006, August 22). Administrative microcomputer policies and guidelines. Retrieved from

Organizational culture. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from


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